On August 5, 2020, the Union Territories of Ladakh and Jammu and Kashmir celebrated their first anniversary of formation.

Background

On August 5, 2019, the Government of India revoked the special status to Jammu and Kashmir by modifying Article 370 of the Constitution. After the abrogation of the article, two union territories Ladakh and Jammu and Kashmir were carved out under Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act 2019.

What is Article 370?

The Article 370 of the Indian Constitution gave special status to the state of Jammu and Kashmir between 1954 and 2019. The article conferred the state to have a separate constitution and autonomy over internal administration of the state.

The article along with Article 35A of Jammu and Kashmir Constitution defined that the residents of the state shall have separate set of laws, fundamental rights, citizenship status, property ownership as compared to the citizens of other Indian states. An Indian citizen from other states, according to the article, cannot purchase land in the state.

On August 5, 2019, all of the above special status to the state was abrogated making all the provisions of the Indian Constitution applicable to the region as well. All the clauses of Article 370 except Clause 1 were declared to be inoperative.

After the abrogation of Article 370, Right to Information Act, 2005 and Representation of People Act, 1951 were extended to these Union Territories.

Key Changes
  • The police and public order are to be with the Centre
  • The UT of J&K is to have a state legislature and Ladakh will not.
  • The powers of Lieutenant Governor of the territories were widened. The CM of the UT has to communicate all administrative decisions of legislation with the LG.

Terrorism since the abrogation

In a period of one year, that is, between August 5, 2019 and August 5, 2020, recruitment of terrorists in the region has fell by 42%. It has reduced from 172 to 100. The number of terrorists trying to infiltrate from Pakistan occupied Kashmir has decreased by 33%.

Also, the terrorism incidents in the region has reduced to 181 in 2020 as against 395 in 2019. The law and order related incidents have fell from 370 per month to 28 per month.

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